Techniques in Communicative Language Learning

06/08/2010 12:58:20


1- Tape-recording student conversation: Students are asked to have a conversation about anything they want in L1. The teacher gives TL translation. Conversation has been recorded and replied.

2- Transcription: to see the written form.

3- Reflection on experience: they criticize their own feeling. Students reflect how they feel about the experience. The teacher doesn't repeat what the learner says, but rather shows s/he understands its essence.

4- Reflective listening: students listen their own voices, the teacher reads the transcript and the students just listen.

5- Human computer

6- Small group tasks:

I) Small groups make new sentences with the words on the transcript.

II) They shared their sentences with the class.

III) Students in pairs made sentences with the different conjugation.

- students can learn from each other

- students can get more practise

- students can know each other better (community among class members can develop)

  • Building relationship with students is important.

  • When student knows what, how, in what time they will do sth, they feel more secure.

  • Language is for communication.

  • No teacher fronted class. Student' interaction is important.

  • Teacher should not challenge student too much.

  • Teacher usually accepts every attempt of the student so that he does not feel any fear.

  • The use of L1 helps security in understanding.

  • The students are expected to do one thing at a time.

  • The teacher wants students to initiate and be volunteer for their own independence.

  • Students criticize and evaluate their own performance.

  • Listening is a very important activity. (human computer)

  • High level cooperation is encouraged.

  • Error correction is done by the teacher' repetitions of correct form (human computer)

  • The class members are expected to form a community by trust and help. (The aim is to make them feel they are in community)

  • Students are encouraged to talk about the different aspects of their learning experience. (feedback sessions)

  • At the beginning students determine the syllabus. Teacher defines the topic. Students tell what they wanna learn. Specific details are determined by the students.

Teacher encourages students to look at their own learning. A conversation is recorded. It can be replayed. They listen their own voices in the T.L., too.

Students work in groups of three. Students can learn from each other and can get more practise. Small groups allow students to get to know each other better. This can lead development among class members. Cooperation not competition is encouraged. Students are asked to have a conversation about anything they want. All the students in class like a community. They respect each other. Practise in these groups what they imagine. They tell each other how their houses are. Ask questions to each other. The teacher makes them to talk among them. Students feel comfortable and they like the lesson. Developing a community among class members builds trust and can help reducing the threat of the new learning situation.

The teacher writes the words on the board, the students tell. Give the students time. The students describe the words written on the board. Students asked the unknown words to the teacher. The teacher describes the word.

Listening is a very important activity. Listen to tape and translate into L1. In Human Computer activity, the students choose which phrase they want to practise pronunciation. First teacher then student. Until the learner satisfies and stops.

e.g. teacher wants them to say their feelings about this lesson. The teacher asks them to describe their reactions to the lesson what they have learned. This provides valuable information for the teacher and encourages student to take responsibility for their own learning.

Communication as basis. They use language for communication. Students begin their study of language through its basic building blocks, its sounds. The situations typically involve only one structure at time. The students are guided to produce the structure. Students initiate the interaction towards teacher. Student - teacher. The teacher is silent. Feelings are important: a) structured feedback, b) observation

Lowering students' threats:

1. saying what they are going to do

2. setting the time limit

3. the teacher is behind

4. acceptance all students saying

5. understanding how students feel (counselor)

6. L1 usage

7. developing a community among the class members. (student reads theirs sentences to the others)

8. trust in teacher


- whole - person learning

- students often feel threatened by a new learning position. So teachers become language counselor. By understanding students' fears and being sensitive to them, teacher helps students overcome their negative feelings (counselor-client)

- student ask their teacher translate for them from their L1 to T.L.

- the learners are encouraged to bring their own ideas and talk to each other.

- Students develop a sense of community, they cooperate with each other, rather than compete. (teacher is out of circle) By this way they feel less stress and take more responsibility for their own learning. Building a relationship with and among the students is very important.

- Aim = get learners use T.L. oraly.

- Security: pupil learn best when they feel secure. Students have an idea what will happen in each activity. Counsel shows students he is really listening and understanding. The teacher creates an accepting atmosphere. L1 is used to make the meaning clear. It provides students have full understanding.

- Interaction: standing position of teacher provides interaction among sts, rather then from student to teacher. Encourages students initiative and independence. (pause before writing the meaning)

- Human Computer: students learn best when they have a choice in what they practise. Feeling in control make them to take more responsibility for their own learning.

- Listening: to see if what they say matches what the teacher is saying. Students need to learn to discriminate similarities / differences.

- When the material is too new or too unfamiliar learning tends not to take place. Retention will best take place between novelty and familiarity.

- Students reflect on what they have experienced. In this way they have an opportunity to learn about their own learning as well as about language. (students are once again invited to talk about the experience they had that evening)

- In the early staged, the syllabus is designed primarily by the students. Students are more willing to learn when they have created the material.


Students feel more secure when they know the limits of an activity. The teacher stands behind the student. If teacher does not remain in front of the classroom the threat reduces.

Community Language Meaning

Whole-person learning: Besides the students' feelings and intellectual, teacher considers the relationship among the students' physical reactions. Their instinctive protective reaction and their desire to learn.

Adults often feel threatened by a new learning situation. They fear that they will appear foolish. A way to deal with students' fears is for teachers to become language counselors. By understanding students' fears and being sensitive to them, teacher can help them to overcome their negative feelings and turn them into positive energy to further their learning.


The chairs are in a circle around a table that has a tape a recorder on it. Teacher greets the students, introduce himself and has the students introduce themselves. In students native languages he tells the students what they will be doing that lesson. And the time for the activity. The students say some utterances in their L1. After teacher translate them they say it. They may practice it by saying, the teachers comes after them. They record their utterances. After the conversation has ended, the teacher sits in the circle and asks students in their L1 how they feel about the experience.

Then they listen their voices in English which they recorded. To see if they recall what they said, they say it again in L1 to be sure that everyone understand what was said. If one can not recall her own sentence, they can all help out.

Next the teacher asks them to move their chairs into a semicircle and to watch as he writes the conversation on the board. The teacher writes all the English sentences line by line numbering each sentence. Before putting L1 equivalents, teacher quietly underlines the first English word and pauses. Since no one volunteers to tell the meaning after a few seconds he writes the equivalents. As the teacher reads the transcript of the conversation tells the students to sit back and relax. Teacher reads it three times. The students just listen.

Human Computer:  Teacher is behind the students. The students use teacher to practice the pronunciation of any English utterance. Student raises hand and the teacher will come behind them. Then the student says either the sentence number ot the word in English or L1. Students listen carefully to see if what they say matches what the teacher is saying. Student repeats as many times as he wants. Teacher will stop only when student stops.

In groups of three:  they create new sentences based upon the words or phrases of the transcript. Each group writes its sentences down. Teacher works from group to group to help. After teacher helps, each group reads its sentences to the class. The teacher replays the tape twice while students are listening. Finally teacher asks them to talk about the experience they have had that evening.

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